Harmful Effects of Screen Time
Kids and Media Use: How Much is Too Much?
School holidays are fast approaching again! Many parents (and kids!) look forward to less routine, no school lunches and rushed mornings! Hopefully the spring weather will draw kids outside to play in nature and at the beach – but many children I see in my clinic tend to spend their holidays stuck behind screens. Without the ‘school night’ curfews, often it is a free for all when it comes to kids and screen time during holidays.
So are screens (TV, computers, mobile devices) harmful and should we be limiting our children’s time in front of them? Normally when we look at holistic health we include all manner of things – from diet and lifestyle to family history and individual health history. I always ask children (or their parents) about not only their food diet but also their media diet. Just like food, media experiences must be ‘digested’ and fully understood and essentially ‘made our own’. In the same way rich food can disagree with sensitive stomachs, screen experiences that are too rich or too abundant can overstimulate and disagree with sensitive brains and emotions. Children do not have the capacity to process in a rational or logical manner screen experiences the way that adults can. Their developing brains and emotional immaturity put them in a vulnerable position, where too much too soon can leave a lasting impression.
There has been a big interest in the past few years into how the brain is affected by the increasing screen time that many children are now experiencing. In fact, some argue much of the fear, anxiety and depression that is becoming so prevalent in today’s children is merely reflecting overstimulation and premature exposure to media influences. Some children in my clinic who suffer nightmares, phobias and anxiety often report being scared when watching a movie or a computer game. Many other children do not understand where their fears and anxieties come from. They are possibly a build up of many different experiences that are poorly digested and appear as behavioural issues, emotional lability or sleep disorders. Parents always report bad behaviour or restlessness after screen time – yet often feel powerless to limit their children’s time.
We all know about the modern ‘explosion’ in children with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorders (ADD/ADHD) and autism. Much research is being done and possible causes have been identified – most being related to environmental issues. These include diverse things from food additives to vaccinations and media exposure. Other researchers are examining the way the brain is changing in children after being exposed to screens. The instant gratification offered by computers and continuous snippets of information bombarding our brains from surfing the web to SMS messages and emails is literally changing the way the brain is connected and operates.
The virtual world is very different from the real world. Screens do not readily explore metaphor, abstract concepts or logical narrative. They do not encourage long attention spans or imagination. Is it any wonder that so many of our kids can’t concentrate or sit still for very long – their brains are programmed from a young age to do the opposite. Screen experiences are always processed in the moment, with very little capacity for follow-up or consequences. For example when a game allows you to shoot someone, you don’t have to deal with the consequences of that death. Then if you happen to ‘die’, well you just start over. Susan Greenwood is a leading UK researcher in neuroscience and has observed a real shift in brain function.
“In the current generation if they’ve been exposed, as most western people have, to screen culture, they will have a shorter attention span and an emphasis of process over content. This means that these young people don’t necessarily spend time evaluating the meaning of things and are perhaps rather impulsive and live in the moment, demanding a high degree of sensory stimulation, as opposed to the ability to reflect and think about abstract things.”
If you need some inspiration to create a new low screen time environment at home, you should check out Susan Maushart’s book, “The Winter of our Disconnect”. It provides a fascinating look behind the scenes at a single mother and her three teenager’s experience of going screen free. Like most teenagers, they were heavy users of online social networking, mobile phones, TV, digital music and computer games. The book documents many of the issues and withdrawal symptoms that she and her kids had with letting go of their myriad devices. But the interesting part is how they adapted and how they came to appreciate other things in life. Her son took up saxophone and her daughters started cooking – and they spent lots of time together as a family. Without screens to escape to, mealtimes were lingered over and became a time to connect as a family and dusty old board games were given a new lease of life.
A truly holistic view of a child’s health must incorporate their diet, their home life dynamic, screen time and their school and social life. All these things will impact on a child’s physical and emotional health. In my view, limiting screen exposure is a responsibility few parents are willing to embrace. Yet, a childhood rich in real life experiences with people, places and the natural world is a gift that will pay dividends. So consider having a family media holiday – even one day a week – and enjoy the many rewards of connecting with each other rather than a screen.
You may also want to check out my video webinar on the effects of wifi and mobiles on health.